Ergonomic desk Human Factors and Work Design Principles.

Ergonomics and human factors synonymously are terms often used. The two describe the interaction between worker or operator plus the work interface. The two are concerned with trying to reduce work stress in the ongoing work place. Ergonomics traditionally has focused on what sort of ongoing work affects individuals and how to fit the employee to the work. This emphasis includes assessing the work, physiologic responses to the work, biomechanics and anthropometrics. In contrast, human factors engineering has been more tightly focused on the man-machine interface ordinarily, as well as human engineering. In other words, making the process flow more efficiently together with less human error. Human factors engineering, usually has focused on human dimension and behavior stereotypes in accordance with the work interface such as work area and gear design.

Goals of Human Factors Engineering.

The targets of human factors engineering are to reduce the potential for human error, reduce effort in addition to enhance worker performance. The usage of human factors engineering design to ergonomics in the workplace can vary from product size as well as configuration to the execution of producing systems. The goal of human factors engineering is to create a clear interface between the workers along with the tools and equipment that they use to develop products or provide companies. By designing a worker-work interface that falls inside the worker’s physical and intellectual capabilities, and by reducing the actual exposure to risk factors, which can contribute to musculoskeletal injuries, work-related injuries and accidents are going to be minimized. In addition , work interfaces, any time well designed will result in predictable human behavior patterns that will be step-by-step and routine, hence resulting in a reduction of human error and the enhanced top quality and consistency of employee performance.

Population Stereotypes.

Human factors design uses engineering psychology, the actual scholarly study of making systems, using the information processing capabilities on the human mind. Engineering psychology is based on the assumption that human behavior is foreseeable, and consequently, uses this behaviour to design the most successful work stations with the the very least amount of potential for error. Whenever a work interface is designed very well, the continuing work performed at this software will be routine and constant. This idea applies to all work pursuits, whether it calls for the controlling of intelligent equipment or the creation of goods on an assembly line. This is because typically the work interface is easy to learn or interpret and there is very little distraction or confusion that will result in worker error or perhaps injury. Every time a work interface is designed, the software is difficult to read or perhaps interpret and may be perplexing for some workers. In this problem, there is a higher probability for that workers to perform less competently, by working harder as well as making more mistakes! In place, performing less efficiently. As time passes, this particular over working will cause tiredness and over stress the muscles as well as joints, cause an increased incidence of musculoskeletal injuries thus. The consequences associated with injuries and errors about the production line are reduce production rates and decrease quality of the product or service.

So as to enhance worker performance, decrease worker stress and exhaustion and at the same time minimize human problem, often the work interface must be developed in such a real way how the work will be performed typically and consistently. In other words, the particular work interface must be attractive. The actual design of work terme is the design of how for you to transfer information really. Data is transferred from the functional system operator via a command mechanism. Control mechanisms normally include keyboards, computer mice, redressers, buttons, switches, steering added wheels, or cranks. Info is transferred from a work interface to the worker additionally. Schooling is read by a staff screen, indicator or control panel and employs this given information to modify equipment, enter data, as well as monitor production levels. Functionality is dependent on how fast and easy the details transfer process is. That known level of performance is usually enhanced if the controls run as one expects them to, ie they comply with population stereotypes.

Population prototypes are based on outcome predictions. These types of stereotypes evolved from observing and also studying human behavior final results in response to certain situations. Human population stereotypes are based on the idea that people expect things to respond in certain ways when they are performing controls or when they are in a few environments. Population stereotypes tend to be then used to design barrière that result in predictable human behavior and safe in addition to efficient work practices. This specific use of predictable human conduct or population stereotypes will even help to minimize human issues and thus enhance worker overall performance. Some examples of population prototypes include the following:

-Color choices- Red signifies “stop” or even “danger”, yellow signifies “warning” “slow” or “caution”, and also Green “go” signifies. Flashing lights tend to point out “warning” or “alert”.
-The “up” position of a swap signifies “on”, the “down” position signifies “off”.
-The “up ” position denotes “start”, the “down” place signifies “stop”.
-Rotary handles are expected to turn clockwise with regard to “on” positions, and counterclockwise for “off” positions.

Human Error.

The goals involving human factors engineering in order to reduce the potential for human blunder, reduce effort and boost worker performance. There are several types of human error, noticed in the ongoing work setting. All three occur, and all about three have the same outcome, which may be a physical injury, an accident, or maybe reduced production rate and also quality. The primary type of human error affecting the work setting is a perception error. Typically the perception error is if the worker or operator doesn’t perceive or notice the notice or error indicator. This may occur if a staff member expects to see a red light source indicating “Stop” or “warning” but instead sees a pink light.

The next type of error that is noticed in the ongoing work setting is undoubtedly an error in decision-making. Typically the decision-making error occurs when the user or worker is inundated with other decisions at the same time. The actual operator must chose which will decision to focus on, and prefers to ignore the warning. This will likely occur when a machine owner is given multiple machines to operate and is not physically qualified to attend all three machines at some point.

The third type of human blunder seen in the workplace is an motion error. The actual action error occurs when the employee or operator reacts on the warning, but does indeed so incorrectly. This takes place when a worker activates an unacceptable control mechanism, or goes the control in the incorrect direction. This error could be due to confusing or to be able to read control panels or perhaps control switches that are not per expected outcomes. If a staff member, turns a control move down, expecting the machine to quit, but instead, the machine stayed upon, or increased power, this can be against the expected outcome belief, however this situation would still lead to an action error. In order to control or even minimize these human problems, work area design should be outlined and very easy to read and recognize carefully.

Universal Design.

The idea of Universal Design evolved from considering the types of human error noticed in the work setting through studying the stereotypical conduct of the human population. Worldwide Design is the concept of making products or work conditions that will be used by a variety of persons, which has a large range of physical and intellectual abilities, working in a wide variety of work situations. Universal Design originated to reduce the types of human glitches observed in the workplace as well as increase worker productivity. This concept connected with universal design, or developing for the population, includes work design for those individuals with absolutely no impairments, as well as, to get designing for those individuals with well-designed limitations or physical or even cognitive impairments. The guidelines or goals of worldwide design include:

-Minimize misunderstanding.
-Minimize complexity.
-Make necessary information clear.


Aspects from human factors engineering, general design and population images are used to modify or design work areas. In practical phrases these engineering concepts can be handy to enhance human performance, lessen worker fatigue, assist in appropriate and safe go back to work for an injured staff member and reduce human error.